Since the first test in 1905, the measurement of human intelligence has developed considerably, although there is still no fixed definition of it. Organizing people according to IQ is annoying, but also fascinating.
Human intelligence has been measured for more than 100 years.
In the early 20th century, teachers found it difficult to distinguish lazy and weak students from each other. Because it was also known that intelligence had more to do with aptitude than with the environment, the need arose to be able to measure the intelligence of the students.
The first intelligence test
The very first intelligence test was developed in 1905 by the French psychologist Alfred Binet. With this, children were judged in terms of logical reasoning, copying patterns and classifying objects.
Binet, who defined intelligence as "the sum of the mental processes involved in adapting to the environment," revised his test in 1908 and 1911.
Intelligence became a quotient
After Binet's death, his colleague Lewis Terman further developed the test. He came up with the idea of measuring intelligence as a quotient.
In 1916 he presented the first test for measuring intelligence quotients: the Stanford-Binet intelligence scale. This test still forms the basis for the modern IQ test.
There are all kinds of IQ tests, the quality and reliability of which vary. A classic part of IQ testing is the recognition of patterns, where you have to show to what extent you can recognize visual relationships. Shutterstock.
IQ test was used for recruitment of spies
In the course of time, IQ tests have been given a different importance in various places around the world.
In the two world wars, Germany, Great Britain and the US use the IQ test on a large scale. The army and the intelligence services tested the soldiers in this way.
Especially during the Second World War, prominent psychologists developed tests to ensure that the best agents and spies surfaced.
In the US it is still common for students who register at a university to be tested for their language and mathematical intelligence.
Are IQ tests credible?
In recent years there has been a debate about whether an IQ test can actually be used to compare the intelligence of people who differ greatly in terms of culture and level of education.
However, in 1994, 52 psychologists issued a statement about the IQ test, in which they found that it is a suitable means of measuring human intelligence and that he does not favor one culture over another.
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